Tables and figures may be presented with captions within the main body of the manuscript; if so, figures
should additionally be uploaded as high resolution files.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in
single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be
removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to
justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When
preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for
each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared
in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with
Elsevier: www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will
be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check"
functions of your word processor. If you are not fluent in English, please let someone who is, and who also
is familiar with the special terminology used in your paper , check and correct it. There are some, but
limited possibilities to get assistance with improving the language through the Journal; if you cannot get
local assistance please ask through the Journal. Manuscripts in bad or incomprehen­sible English
may be rejected, so please assure that you have done all you can to improve the text.
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1
(then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also
for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to "the text". Any subsection may be given a brief heading.
Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey
or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated
by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the
Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a
practical development from a theoretical basis.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance and limitations of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined
Results and Discussion section may be appropriate, but then it must clearly appear what are results and
what is discussion. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand
alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in
appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix,
Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
* Title.Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid
abbreviations and formulae where possible.
* Author names and affiliations.Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name),
please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was
done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the
author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation,
including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
*Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and
publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code)
are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be
kept up to date by the corresponding author.
*Present/permanent address.If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done,
or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote
to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the
main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research,
the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so
it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite
the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if
essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding
general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with
abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be
used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the
article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there,
as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do
not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those
individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or
proof reading the article, etc.).
Nomenclature and units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI).
If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUPAC:
Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: http://www.iupac.org/ for further information.
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a
horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics.
Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have
to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using
superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be
used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes
themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.
* Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
* Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
* Ensure that the text is large enough to be legible, even if reduced in size in the final manu-
* Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
* Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
* Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
* Provide captions to illustrations separately.
* Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
* Submit each figure as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert
the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones,
and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
TIFF: Colour or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please
supply "as is".
Please do not:
* Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
* Supply files that are too low in resolution;
* Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with
the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures then
Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in colour on the Web (e.g.,
ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color
in the printed version.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A
caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep
text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables
below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be
sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results
described elsewhere in the article.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).
Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal
communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these
references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the
journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either "Unpublished results" or
"Personal communication" Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been
accepted for publication.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any
further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should
also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different
heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the
text) to any other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote
and Reference Manager
Using plug-ins to word processing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template
when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to
the journal style which is described below.
Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Each reference is identified using a superscripted number and is placed after punctuation
Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of
2. References are numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text;
3. Multiple references are separated by closed-up commas and an en dash used for ranges.
4. References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point
where the table or figure is first mentioned in the text
5 Abstracts should not be cited unless it is the only available reference to an important concept
6 Uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e. “unpublished
observation”, “personal communication”) should not be cited as references
7 If reference cited only has 2 authors, both surnames are listed, e.g. Hawkins and Price
8 If only 1 author, then: Hawkins reported that…
9 If ≥ 3 authors, then: Hawkins et al reported that… [note: “et al” has no end period and is not in
Reference to a journal publication:
Vasiliy S, Kyle T, Paul J. Reentry time prediction using atmospheric density corrections. Journal of
Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 2008, 31(2): 282-289.
Van der Geer J, Hanraads J A J, Lupton R A. The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific
Communications , 2000,163:51–59.
Reference to a book:
Strunk Jr W, White E B. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York, 1979.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam G R, Adams L B. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. in: Jones B S,
Smith R Z ,eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc. New York, 1999: 281–304.
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to
Index Medicus journal abbreviations: www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html ;
List of title word abbreviations: www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php;
CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service): www.cas.org/sent.html
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for
review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One Author designated as corresponding Author:
* E-mail address
* Full postal address
* Telephone and fax numbers
All necessary files have been uploaded
* All figure captions
* All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
* Manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked", and if necessary, also proof-
read by a person proficient in English
* References are in the correct format for this journal
* All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
* Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including
* Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of
charge) and in print or to be reproduced in colour on the Web (free of charge) and in black-
and- white in print
* If only color on the Web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for
For any further information please visit our customer support site at
Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists
of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the
initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing
a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic
information. The correct format for citing a DOI is shown as follows (example taken from a document in
the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use the DOI to create URL hyperlinks to documents on the web, they are guaranteed never to
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not
have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so
that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which
can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free
from get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also
given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to
the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number.
If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including
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by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of
the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be
considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article
published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important
to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before
replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your
responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. For an extra
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More information about article offprint is available here: webshop.elsevier.com/
For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission) please visit this
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www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You can also check our Author FAQs (www.elsevier.com/authorFAQ)
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